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ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
 
 

In March 1883, the Khan of Kalat leased Quetta to the British authorities. In April 1883 it was combined with Pishin into a single administrative unit. At that time Sir H.S. Barnes was appointed as the first Political Agent. The administrative situation remained till the partition of the sub-continent in 1947. Quetta and Pishin continued to be a single administrative unit till 1975. In that year Pishin was made a separate administrative unit. Now the district consists of two sub-divisions (I) Quetta city (ii) Quetta Sadar. The district also comprises one Tehsil (Quetta) and one Sub-Tehsil (Punjpai).

 
     
 
BRIEF HISTORY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
 
 

The brief history of local government institutions in the district starts from Quetta Panclinat. The Political Agent and few persons from the merchant class were the members of this body. On October 16, 1896, Quetta Municipal Law was promulgated. As a result Quetta Municipal Committee was constituted on October 17, 1896. The Committee consisted of 10 members; the Political Agent Quetta, a Chairman, 5 ex-officio members and 4 nominated members. In the year 1905 five more members were nominated. The Assistant Political Agent Quetta was appointed as its Vice Chairman. The disastrous earthquake of 1935 destroyed the whole city. The city was redesigned under a plan and special earthquake proof structures were introduced. A number of such structures can be seen in Tin Town area, located in the main city. In the year 1946, the Municipal Law was reformed and a new Committee was constituted under the new law. The Political Agent of Quetta - Pishin remained its Chairman but Fida Ali Bhoy was appointed as its Vice Chairman. It is not out of place mention that the committee along with the members of “Shahi Jirga” decided in favour of joining Balochistan with Pakistan on June, 1947.

This Committee was dissolved in 1956 and a new committee was formed. Again the Political Agent Quetta was appointed as its Chairman and Chaudhry Muhammad Ali became its Senior Vice Chairman.

In November, 1959 elections were held under the Basic Democracies system. The Chairmen of all Union Committees within Quetta city became members of the Quetta Municipal Committee. Mr. Abdul Ghafoor Khan Durrani was elected its Vice Chairman whereas the Quetta Political Agent remained its Chairman.

In 1962, through a change in the structure and function of local bodies, the local government institutions were re-organised in the form of union committees, union Councils, town committees and municipalities. The second tier composed of Tehsil Council and District Council. The third tier was formed by the divisional Councils, in which rural and urban areas were given representations. This system was known as Basic Democracies as the role of local government was extended down to the grass root level. In 1970 another development took place with the establishment of Local Government Departments at provincial level.

The status of Quetta Municipal Committee was raised to a first Class Committee and a full time Senior Govt: Official was appointed as its Chairman. In the year 1972 the Local Councils were again dissolved and handed over to the officially appointed administrator. In the year 1975, the Municipal limits were extended from 2.5 Sq miles to 7.5 Sq miles.

The present local government system was introduced in 1979. The purpose of local government system is to give the local population full participation in their development schemes. Therefore, the Balochistan Local Government Ordinance ( BLGO ) 1980 was introduced and implemented.

In 1979, Local Bodies elections were held. As a result 48 elected Councillors, 2 Minority Councillors, 3 Lady Councillors and 1 Labour Councillor were elected. Malik Mohammed Zakria Khan Kasi became its Chairman. The status of the 1st Class Municipal Committee was raised to full fledged “Municipal Corporation” in September 1981 and Zakaria Khan Kasi became its first Chairman.

Thereafter, two local bodies elections were held in the year 1983 and 1987. On July 15, 1991 the local bodies were dissolved in Quetta. Since then the administrator is handling the affairs of the corporation.

 
     
 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION
 
 

Local government in urban areas of district Quetta consists of the Municipal Corporation. It is headed by a Mayor and consists of 66 ward members. The size of Municipal Corporation depends on the number of people residing in that area. Their is one Administrator who represents the Government and assists the chairman and members in the day to day functioning.

In the rural areas of Quetta district, there are 8 Union Councils. They constitute a District Council, each union Council is represented by a member in the District Council. In addition there is special representation of 2 women, 1 peasant, 1 non-muslim and 1 worker. Thus District Council is composed of 13 members; the Deputy Commissioner and Assistant Directors of various Departments are Ex-Officio members of this Council. The functions of local Government are given in annexure four.

The traditional decision making structure at village level used to make decisions under an Arbitration Council ( Jirga ), the members of which were normally nominated by the Political Agent. Among the members Mullah’s and tribal Malik’s were prominent.

The Jirga used to exercise semi judicial powers and their decisions were accepted due to their social status. The decision had to be endorsed by the Political Agent.

Local Government Organogramme
 
 

Union Council
The Union Council is the basic unit of Local Government. There are 8 Union Councils in the district. Each Union Council serves a population ranging from 10 to 15 thousand persons. There are 2 women and 1 peasant seat in each Union Council, irrespective of the allocation of total seats, which varies from Council to Council. The Union Councils are supposed to perform development works. In the past their function was limited to the construction and improvement of drainage facilities and maintenance of roads in their area. At present they are not functioning as they were suspended by the provincial Government. However, all union Councils are financially depending on provincial Government. Every union Council is empowered to generate its own sources of revenue and spend it. Other functions of Union Councils include issuance of birth and death certificates. They also resolve conflicts among the villagers. They are autonomous and independent to make any decision within their jurisdiction. However, some of the financial expenditure decisions have to be formally endorsed by the District Council. Out of the 8 union councils, 4 are getting 2% of the octroi received by the Quetta Municipal Corporation. These 4 union councils are Kachi Baig, Shadazai, Kotwal and Baleli. The reason is that these Xouncils are situated on the main route leading to Quetta.

 The major constraint for the councils is that they are neither able to generate their own resources nor get sufficient grants from the Government. Therefore, their role in development is negligible.

Town Committee
There is no Town Committee in district Quetta.

Municipal Committee
There is no Municipal Committee in Quetta district.

District Council
There is one District Council in district Quetta. There are 13 members of the Council, out of them 8 belong to the respective Union Councils, while special seats are allocated to: women (2) workers (1) peasant (1) and non-Muslims (1).

The District Council is represented by each Union Council and is concerned with rural development activities. Their major functions are:

  • Collection of Zila Tax.
  • Collection of real estate property tax.
  • To charge license fee on stone crushing plant and brick kilns.
  • To collect taxes from rural shopkeepers.

These taxes are spent on the non-development expenditure of the District Council and on improvement of shingle roads. Ever since the suspension of the elected District Councils, the Deputy Commissioner is its Administrator.

Municipal Corporation
Quetta Municipal Corporation is normally headed by a Mayor, who is elected by a Council comprising 66 elected member. Out of them 2 are non-Muslims, one is worker and 3 are women. However, at present the elected council does not exist as it was suspended by the Government of Balochistan. Now the Municipal Corporation is headed by an Administrator appointed by the government of Balochistan. He is assisted by a team comprising a Municipal Commissioner, Chief Officer, Magistrate, Engineer and Octroi and accounts officer. The 1980 Ordinance defines the functions as under:

  1. To regulate private drainage and disposal of waste
  2. To maintain slaughter house
  3. To register birth and death
  4. To prevent infectious decease
  5. To provide relief measures in the event of fire
  6. To regulate construction of Buildings.

Optional functions of the Corporation include:

  1. Regulating washing places
  2. Maintaining public library
  3. Providing and maintaining street lights
  4. Maintaining the quality of food through regulations.

To meet the above functions, QMC derives its income from the following sources.

  1. Octroi: This is the biggest source of income, for the fiscal year 1996-97, income from this source is Rs.13,98,30,625/-.
  2. Fee on profession and trade: This includes license fee for trade, animals and profession. Income from this source for the year 1996-97 is Rs.30,65,100/-.
  3. Income from House Tax in the same year is Rs.51,00,000. Rent of Municipal property, fines, tax on immovable property are the other source, of income.
Quetta Municipal Corporation
 
     
 
FEDERAL/PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION
 
 

Quetta, being the provincial capital, is the administrative headquarters of all the districts. Central authority for administration, judiciary and police flows from Quetta to other districts. All departmental secretaries control their respective departments in all districts from Quetta. Thus Quetta is the centre for all types of decision making.

The Chief Minister is the chief executive of the province, Chief Secretary controls the overall administration except Judiciary, which has its own administrative set up. Chief Secretary is assisted by Secretaries of the various departments. Secretaries are assisted by Deputy Secretaries and Section Officers. Almost all the Departments have a Director General at provincial level - who assist the Secretaries of their respective Departments.

The provincial government administration at district level is headed by a Deputy Commissioner, the chief executive of the district. He is assisted by Assistant Commissioners, a sub-divisional Magistrate, Tehsildars, Naib-Tehsildars and others. His main functions include maintenance of law and order, revenue collection. He is the controlling authority for police and levies. He is Political Agent of the government.

He is also one of the members of the Divisional Co-ordination Committee. Sometimes the Deputy Commissioner is assigned a special task to monitor and report about the progress of some development projects.

Being the chief executive of the district, he is supposed to have a close relationship with the MPAs, MNAs and Senators. He provides a supporting role in connection with development schemes provided by the other functionaries of the district including the Provincial Government, Civil Secretariat Quetta and Hanna Lake.

District Health Officer who controls all health activities. The Superintendent of Police assists Deputy Commissioners in the maintenance of law and order within the district. The District Education Officer controls and supervises the educational institutions of the district. The Extra Assistant Director of Agriculture implements the policies of the government pertaining to agriculture.

The hierarchy at divisional level starts with Commissioner, DIG Police, Director Health, Director Education, Director Agriculture etc; overall Judiciary in the province is controlled by the High Court. District and Session Judge controls the Judicial Organization in the district.

Provincial Government Administration
 
     
 
MAINTENANCE OF LAW AND ORDER
 
 

Maintaining law & order is the main function of the district administration. Judiciary, Police/ Levies and Administration are three components who perform this task. As far as Judiciary is concerned, the District Session Judge controls and supervises the Judiciary work. As a result of separation of judiciary from executive tasks a number of Judicial Magistrates were appointed in the District. This would result in quick and not so costly Justice for the community. While under the Jirga system, the Deputy Commissioner was the final authority to make decisions. People had to wait for years to settle their disputes and rivalries under the previous setup.

The general security in district Quetta to a greater extent is satisfactory. According to the police information about crime rates in the district during 1995/96, the total crimes have increased by 20%. However, heinous crimes such as murder and dacoity are negligible. There is complete freedom of travelling in rural and urban areas in day time. In some of the areas due to a number of factors (including free availability of arms) travelling is some what risky at night time. Travelling in convoy is not needed both for Pakistani and foreigners. Keeping in view the size of population in Quetta district, the crime rates are relatively low.

 
     
 
REVENUE ADMINISTRATION
 
 

Revenue collection is differently administered by federal, provincial and local government. Every organisation collects specific tax levied by them e.g. collection of water charges are the responsibility of those organisations who provide water. In district Quetta, WASA, PHED, Cantonment Board, MES and QDA supply water and they collect water charges from the users. Sanitation fee, Octroi, property tax and business licence tax are imposed and collected by the Municipal Corporation. Livestock cess, agriculture cess and land tax, property tax, registration vehicle tax and coal mining royalty are collected through the provincial government. Whereas, income tax and custom duty are collected by the federal government.

Taxes Union Council Town Commit. District Council Brd of Rev./ Pol. Agent Provincial Govt. Federal Govt.
Water charges
-
x
-
-
x
-

Sanitation fee

-
x
-
-
-
-

Livestock cess

-
-
-
-
x
-

Agricultural cess

-
-
-
-
x
-

Octroi

-
x
-
-
-
-

Zila tax

-
-
x
-
-
-

Land tax

-
x
x
-
-
-

Property tax

-
-
-
-
x
-

Business Licence

-
x
x
-
x
-

Registration Vehicles

-
-
-
-
x
-

Coal Mining etc.

-
-
x
-
-
-

Income tax

-
-
-
-
-
x

Custom duty

-
-
-
-
-
x
Legend: x is responsible for collection of revenue concerned
 
     
 
POLITICAL PARTIES
 
 

There are many political parties in the district and they try to mobilise political opinion in their favour. However, tribal affiliation, religion and family kinship are the main factors determining the shape of political behaviour. This is evident form the recent election held in February, 1997. J.U.I (a religious party) won one of the provincial assembly seats. Two seats went to the Pakistan Muslim League. One seat went to the Pashtoon Khawa Milli Awami Party. The National Assembly seat was won by the Pakistan Muslim League.

The role of women in the political parties is not significant, mainly due to the social and tribal set-up. Their role is confined to the extent of casting votes. Moreover, only in urban areas women organize political activities for their parties, but this is also limited to mobilizing support (votes) for male candidates during elections. Despite their potential, political parties, dominated by males, do not give women politicians any significant role.  They are certainly marginalized; in recent elections not a single woman contested. Main reasons are that they are not encouraged or have the economic independence to be serious candidates.

Their interest in politics compels them to tail male politicians, a frustrating secondary role for women politicians . The often very worldly and educated women cannot break the stronghold of men. Recently a women’s political forum came in to existence, with the objective of fighting the male monopoly in politics.

Student organisations of different parties exist at college and university level. They work for their parties as well as try to solve educational problems through their organizations. It is worth mentioning that by comparison to other districts, student organizations are well organized in Quetta. However, it is also a major reason for deterioration of educational standards due to undue interference in all matters.

Quetta is the centre of business and economic activities. It is an industrial area and, being the Provincial Headquarters, is the centre of all trade unions activities. Head offices of all provincial labour union & trade unions are located in Quetta. These trade unions are actively involved in organizing labour under their banners.

 
     
 
NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS
 
 

According to the Social Welfare Department of Balochistan, there are 220 NGOs working in Quetta district. Most of the NGOs are based in Quetta city. They are involved in various socio-economic and cultural activities like health, education, drug control and family planning. These organizations organize and mobilize their activities around the principles of good governance, self help and community participation. Their innovative approach to address the issues at grass root level is becoming popular among the people in the district. There is an NGO Co-ordination Committee, operating as an umbrella organization for these entities. There are 23 NGOs working for women development in the district.

  • Balochistan Rural Support Programme (BRSP).
  • Strengthening Participatory Ogranization (SPO).
  • Society for Community Support for Primary Education in Balochistan(SCSPEB).
  • Aurat Foundation.
  • Tanzeem Idara Bahali Mustehqeen (TIBM).
  • Association of Business, Professional and Agricultural Women (ABPAW).

Besides the Balochistan Branch of the association of Business, Professional and Agricultural Women was established in Quetta in 1989. Its basic aims are to organize working women in order to achieve high standards of professionalism, stimulate community support and create awareness of women’s rights.

The Quetta Branch of Aurat Foundation was opened in 1993. Its main purpose is to create awareness among women in major regional languages through mass media approach.

GO/NGO/Private Enterprise coverage of major sector

Sector Local Govt. Prov. Govt. Fed. Govt. NGO Internat. Donor Private Entr.
Productive
-
-
-
-
-
-
Agriculture
-
x
-
-
xx
xxx
Horticulture
-
xx
-
-
x
xxx
Livestock
-
xx
-
-
-
xxx
Fisheries
-
-
-
-
-
-
Forestry (harvesting)
-
xxx
x
-
x
-
Mining
-
x
-
-
-
xxx
Industry/Manufacturing
-
x
-
-
-
xxx
Economic Service
 
-
-
-
-
-
Financial Services
-
x
xxx
-
-
xx
Roads
x
xxx
xxx
-
x
-
Rail/Airways
-
-
xxx
-
-
-
Social Service
-
-
-
-
-
-
Water Supply
-
xxx
-
-
-
x
Health
-
xxx
-
-
-
xx
Education
-
xxx
x
-
xx
xx
Sports
-
xx
-
x
-
xxx
Social Welfare
-
xx
-
x
-
x
Women & Development
x
xxx
x
x
xx
-
Legend:
- no involvement
x minor involvement
xx substantial involvement
xxx major involvement
 
     
 
CONCLUSION AND MAJOR DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
 
 
  • If Local Government institutions are strengthened, they can play a significant role in the socio-political and economic development. They promote development process at gross-root level, as they are training grounds and nurseries for democracy
  • Public administration has been reformed by separating Judiciary from the Executive which is expected to bring about positive results in the over all situation.
  • Revenue is mostly collected by Federal and Provincial Governments, while a handsome amount is collected by the Municipal Corporation.
  • Religion and tribal affiliations are playing a crucial role in the politics of the district.
  • The role of women in political parties needs  to be addressed
  • Quetta Municipal Corporation is not performing its tasks effectively. There are a host of reasons; among others, the Corporation is understaffed in relation to the serving areas and population
  • Frequent transfers of Heads of Department has adversely affected the management of the district and the effective implementation of development schemes
  • Efficiency of Local Government is very poor because decision making is highly centralized. Further, financial constraint hampers their activities. Therefore, the need arises to build institutional capacity in terms of financial, technical and human resources
  • The concept of non-government organisation is not well defined. It has to be inculcated among the people through conscious efforts
  • The role of NGOs in gender issues is however significant. But co-ordination among themselves need to be improved
  • NGOs are poorly developed, limited institutional capacity inhibit their capacity to co-operate effectively with donors
 
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